Geography of Turkey
Turkey is considered to be a large nation because of its total area. Its total land area is 783,562 km² (approx. 302,534 mi²). Continental shelf of Turkey is approximately 56,093 km² (around 21,658 mi²). Turkey is located in Asia. Asia is the world’s largest and most populous continent. Asian countries include, but are not limited to, Russia, China, Japan, Hong Kong, and North and South Korea. Turkey has 8 neighbouring countries. Its neighbours include Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Syria. Turkey is not a landlocked country. It means that is is bordered by at least one major body of water. The average elevation range of Turkey is 1,132 m (3,714 ft).
Total length of land borders of Turkey is 2816 kilometers (~1,087 miles). Turkey shares its land borders with 8 different countries, and has the same number of unique land boundaries to neigbouring territories. As in the case of Turkey, if a country has the same number of unique neighboring territories as number of land borders, than that country has no non-contiguous sections of a land border. This is in contrast to several countries that have multiple non-contiguous sections of land borders. Turkey has 8 neighbouring countries. Its neighbours include Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Iran, Iraq, and Syria. The lengths of the land borders of Turkey with its neighbouring countries are as follows:
- Armenia - 268 km (167 mi),
- Azerbaijan - 9 km (6 mi),
- Bulgaria - 240 km (149 mi),
- Georgia - 252 km (157 mi),
- Greece - 206 km (128 mi),
- Iran - 499 km (310 mi),
- Iraq - 352 km (219 mi),
- Syria - 822 km (511 mi).
The capital city of Turkey is Ankara. The largest cities in Turkey are Ankara, Istanbul.
The average elevation range of Turkey is 1,132 m (3,714 ft). The highest point of Turkey is Mount Ararat, with its official height being 5137 m (16,854 ft). The lowest point of Turkey is Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea. The elevation difference between the highest (Mount Ararat) and lowest (Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea) points of Turkey is 5137 m (2 ft).
The total land area of Turkey is 783,562 km² (approx. 302,534 mi²). and the total exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is 261,654 km² (~101,025 mi²). The continental shelf of Turkey is approximately 56,093 km² (around 21,658 mi²). Including land mass and EEZ, the total area of Turkey is approximately 1,045,216 km² (~403,558 mi²). Turkey is considered to be a large nation because of its total area.
Forest and arable land
216,781 km² of Turkey's territory is covered in forests, and forest land comprises 28% of all the land in the country. There are 229,764 km² of arable land in Turkey, and it comprises 29% of the country's total territory.
Read our section on climate to discover what parameters affect these and other biomes of the country.
The most notable natural resources found in Turkey are coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower.